(2017) and principles of stratigraphy is the statement by Chanderbali et al. Research findings on the Asian Cretaceous Yixian Formation and other strata from northeastern Asia are reviewed by Ge Sun et al. "It seems the perpetuation of the 'abominable mystery' is due more to a disagreement over the cladistic position of various fossil taxa in relationship to the angiosperm crown group, than the lack of data." The preceding quotation is from page 127 of M. Zavada (2007), The identification of fossil angiosperm pollen and its bearing on the time and place of the origin of angiosperms, Plant Systematics and Evolution 263: 117-134. A temporary fix to preserve Arthur Cronquist's accomplished work is to adopt the classification level of superorder as championed by Dahlgren and Clifford (1982) and Dahlgren et al. (1986), Knobloch and Mai (1986), Schönenberger and Friis (2001), Eklund (2003), Kvaček and Eklund (2003), Friis et al. (2011) are key pieces of the scientific literature on early angiosperm floras and fossils. A book on Mesozoic seed plants including crown group basal angiosperms is T.
Many of these fossil genera probably belong in the lower eudicot or magnoliid clades. Sun and Dilcher in 1997, and discussed within the context of a Jurassic aquatic origin of flowering plants (G. The morphology of pollen-bearing organs and stem anatomy of Archaeanthus is unknown, therefore critical comparison with Afropollis pollen and fossil wood of Cretaceous Winteraceae from Antarctica (Poole and Francis 2000) is impossible. This task has been realized with the publication of APG IV in 2016. Friis and Skarby (1981), Friis (1985), Crane et al. Alexandr Rasnitsyn and Donald Quicke (2002) edit the most complete book on Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous fossil insects available at this time. Since 2005 phylogenetic analyses of extant basal flowering plants point to the Amborellaceae, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales (ANA) as sister groups to all other basal magnoliids, monocots, eudicots, core eudicots, rosids, and asterids (Leebens-Mack et al.
I also bring back to life monocotyledonous elements of a ghost lineage of flowering plants traced from Norian sanmiguelias. Paleoecologies of these ancient stem-group angiosperm populations were not "dark and disturbed," or "wet and wild," or explainable by any other nonsensical and sophomorical pairing of adjectives. lycopsids, ferns, conifers, cycads, ginkgos) during the middle or late Paleozoic." Absence of paleobotanical data is not a substitute for fact when dealing with a probable ghost lineage due to insufficient sampling, especially in view of several molecular-phylogenetic studies estimating divergences of the flowering plant crown more than 220 MYA, which were events centered in the middle of the Triassic Period (Stephen A. Ovuliferous inflorescences first described as Axelrodia burgeri, polleniferous inflorescences named Synangispadixis tidwellii, flowers with ovuliferous units and polleniferous units, megasporophylls as carpels, synangia as anthers, bracts, and bitegmic ovules were described and discussed by Cornet (1986, 1989). Further, Hochuli and Feist-Burkhardt data (2004, 2013) are unequivocal. (2005) underscore the importance of studying poorly known Mesozoic gymnosperms in order to elucidate the roots of the angiosperm stem group. Stem group flowering plants are almost completely unknown except for tantalizing clues to their existence from fossil finds of angiosperm palynomorphs, which were recovered from deeply buried Middle Triassic sediments and later discussed by Hochuli and Feist-Burkhardt (2013). Pictured to the left is a flower of Protea compacta (Proteaceae, Proteales, Proteanae) photographed by the author. Middle Triassic magnoliid palynofloras of arid, boreal, and tropical paleoenvironments are also discussed. I also review the literature on the basic biology and molecular evolution of extant basal angiosperms as defined by The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG IV 2016) to include enigmatic monocotyledonous Hydatellaceae (Friis and Crane 2007, Rudall et al. Calibrated molecular-phylogenetic analyses by Eguchi and Tamura (2016) and C. Comprehensive accounts of the past literature on Mesozoic angiosperms are published by Dilcher (1979), Crane et al. Insights into the rapid radiation of crown group flowering plants from the angiosperm stem group based on contrasting molecular-phylogenetic research perspectives are available in numerous reviews (J. Doyle and Donoghue 1993, Magallón and Castillo 2009, Stephen A. There is little doubt that Bayesian computational molecular-clock simulations by Beaulieu et al. Despite animated discussion by Cascales-Miñana et al. The slab pictured to the left was unearthed from the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Formation of North America. This idea is supported by reanalysis of nucleic acid data suggesting a late Triassic age for the flowering plant crown group (Stephen A. More field- and laboratory work is needed with focus on rock layers Permo-triassic in age to find and describe fossils of reproductive spur- (short-) shoots, and detached and shed angiospermous organs and foliar remains. Prevailing hypotheses, based on evidence both from living and from fossil plants, emphasize that the earliest angiosperms were plants of small stature with rapid life cycles that exploited disturbed habitats in open or perhaps understorey conditions ..." The preceding statement is quoted from the abstract of a letter on page 551 of E. The right-hand image is reproduced from Figure 6 on page 2634 of Hamès et al. Specifically, our results indicate that the heterodimerization between DEF-like and GLO-like proteins was already present in the [most common recent ancestor] MRCA of extant angiosperms and was virtually never rewired" (page 1438, Discussion, Conservation of the MADS-domain protein interaction pattern during angiosperm evolution, Melzer et al. Leafy protein regulates gibberellin (GA)-mediated transition to flowering and downstream expression of MIKC-type MADS-box genes that determine floral organ identity (Glover 2014, Glover et al. The previous statement is quoted from page 2635 of C. A fourth, ecologically-grounded soil nutrient-feedback hypothesis is advanced by Berendse and Scheffer (2009). Despite possible problems with the chain of custody of this fossil, the purported place of collection including rock outcrops in the vicinity, have been dated using methods to constrain the supposed age of the Haifanggou and Lanqi formations (S-C. (2017) neglected to develop older ideas on possible relationships of Triassic sanmiguelias with Permo-carboniferous Vojnovskyales, or to discuss morphological similarities of Sanmiguelia lewisii with monocots. "Our data suggest that the interactions governing flower development in core eudicots were already established at the base of extant angiosperms and remained highly conserved since then. No, when biochemical and evo-devo models of cone and floral organization posited by Baum and Hileman (2006), Theißen and Melzer (2007), and Melzer et al. Recent hypotheses propose that the earliest angiosperms may have been small, woody shrubs that colonized disturbed sites in the damp understory of humid forests ... Based on gene expression data and studies of plant development in extant plant species (R. (1), Pollen Type 1, specimen A, LM image (high focus)" (Hochuli and Feist-Burkhardt 2013): micrograph is reproduced by permission from Professor Peter A. Table 5 summarizes the stratigraphic distribution and microfossil, megafossil, and mesofossil history of the subclasses of flowering plants according to Cronquist (1981). Although one solution to this problem would be to restrict the systematic analysis of angiosperm megafossils to taxa known from both reproductive and vegetative organs, this approach would greatly restrict information about the flora as a whole, given the dominance of isolated vegetative organs in the megafossil record." The above statement is from page 3 of Upchurch and Dilcher (1990), Cenomanian Angiosperm Leaf Megafossils, Dakota Formation, Rose Creek Locality, Jefferson County, Southeastern Nebraska, U. Separate columns are devoted to extant and extinct taxa. The fossil was photographed by the writer in 1981 from Indiana University research and teaching specimens with the permission of Professor David L. The previous essay raises the possibility that flowering plants might be an amalgam of paraphyletic evolutionary lines traceable to surviving geographically disparate early Triassic remnants of already divergent Permian seed plant lineages. "Angiosperm history" is summarized from the evolutionary perspective (C. (2015) suggest a Triassic age for angiosperms, which is consistent with a growing body of paleontological evidence. A review of Cretaceous records for clumped angiosperm pollen and its bearing on coevolution with insect pollinators is available (D. Engraled and Leafy, are two structurally similar homeodomain (DNA-binding) TFs. "Our data suggest that the interactions governing flower development in core eudicots were already established at the base of extant angiosperms and remained highly conserved since then. Simply put, apparent absence of angiosperm fossils in the Triassic and Jurassic stratigraphic record is not data. The preceding statement is quoted from page 86 of Pamela S. Artist's reconstruction is reproduced with the written permission of Xin Wang, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, copyright ©2015, all rights reserved. Studies of the emerging fossil record of possible angiosperms and other seed plants recovered from Asian rocks are reviewed by Xin Wang (2009, 2014) and Herendeen et al. Interestingly, the senior author of the review paper by Herendeen et al. A Doyle (pages 380-385, 1978), congruent with classical studies of Arber and Parkin, Leppik, Stebbins, and Takhtajan? Many authors have noted the similarity of petriellalean cupules to those of the Caytoniales, a group of gymnosperms that continues to figure prominently in theories about the mysterious origin of flowering plants ... Based on this fragmentary body of sometimes credible data, a 160 million year old ghost lineage or lineages of flowering plants is possible, thus paralleling the vexing problems in deciphering early Mesozoic insect and dinosaurian lineages, including challenges to the validity of the so-called Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (G. The right-hand image is "PLATE I ¦ Scale bar[s] 10µm. Absence of fossilized remains of flowering plants in the stratigraphic record is not data. Any classification based on a single organ has a greater potential for error than one based on a variety of organs ... Integers in Table 5 represent the total number of taxonomic orders and genera (in parentheses) for each of Cronquist's subclasses of flowering plants.